Social class - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

However, one of the articles in this special issue is centrally concerned with the tricky measurement and conceptualization challenges surrounding the middle class. Specifically, Thurlow et al. () suggest that the standard for Africa's middle class should not be lowered simply because of the lower cost of living in that region. Instead, they advocate a universal concept of middle class status that encompasses protection from economic vulnerability and prospects for social mobility. They suggest three measures that would constitute a minimal threshold of meeting this concept: (i) living in a dwelling with piped water, flush toilet and electricity, (ii) completion of secondary schooling and (iii) skilled employment. Based on Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS) for nine African countries, the authors highlight that absolute expenditure cut‐offs, such as those advocated by the AfDB, overestimate the share of a country's population who meet this minimal threshold. Even more tellingly, the variation across African countries regarding those who can meet these three criteria is substantial, again questioning how representative of a genuine middle class absolute income cut‐offs actually are. A more in‐depth analysis of Zambia and South Africa also reveals interesting temporal and racial differentiations.

The concept of middle class is then anchored to: - A non-arbitrary principle, based on welfare

The experience of Africa is slightly different. Bright Simons, president of M Pedigree, questioned two fundamental assumptions. Firstly, the quantitative basis: according to the African Development Bank the African middle class comprises 20% of the population, but this is based on the definition of earning 2 to 20 dollars a day. This quantitative income range is so large that it makes the concept of middle class meaningless and drawing any empirical conclusions on a quantitative basis “ridiculous”.

Middle Class | Definition of middle class by Merriam-Webster

But other critics argue that the traditional concept of middle class does not exist in Africa In the West, the concept of the middle class can be traced back to Aristotle. But theories of social class were fully elaborated in the nineteenth century. The most systematic theoretical framework for class is found in the Marxist and Weberian traditions. Within the Marxist tradition of class analysis, class divisions are defined primarily in terms of the link between property relations and exploitation. In a capitalist society, the form of exploitation exercised is based on property rights in relation to the means of production. These property rights generate three basic classes: the capitalist class, which owns the means of production and hires workers; the working class, which does not own the means of production and sells its labour to the capitalists; and the petty bourgeoisie—the middle class, which owns and uses the means of production without hiring others.

was tortured by definition and misconceived in concept

Meanwhile in Britain — where middle class is measured by being educated and improving one’s mind, not by the number of toys one possesses — a BBC survey last week revealed the country should be divided into seven classes rather than the customary three — upper, middle and lower class. The concept of middle class is outdated in today’s world, the BBC said. Evolution, it appears, has outgrown the middle class.

The Middle School Concept - Angelfire